Get to know marine mammals
Animals can be classified into two types, namely vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates are animals that have a spine, while invertebrates do not have a spine. There are several groups including vertebrate animals, these groups of animals are reptiles, amphibians, birds (birds), fish, and mammals. Mammals are animals that contain lungs. Based on their habitat, mammals can be distinguished into land mammals and marine mammals. marine mammals are known to be the most common mammals found in the sea.
Marine mammals which are included in the order of cetaceans are generally referred to as cetaceans. Whales, dolphins, and dolphins are animals that belong to this order. Other languages translated from Latin are cetus which means large animals, whereas in Greek they come from the word ketos which means animals from the sea. Based on body size, cetaceans can be divided into 3 groups, namely cetaceans that have a body size of more than 9 meters, cetaceans that have a body size of 4–9 meters, and cetaceans that have the smallest body size of 1.5–4 meters. While based on water types, including cetaceans that live in air and fresh water, most cetaceans live in sea water.
As with other mammals, cetaceans reproduce by making and liberating them using the lungs. Some of the differences that cetaceans have with other mammals are from anatomical differences. Blow holes, blowing holes, and blowing holes (blowholes) at the top of the head, blowing holes called the nostrils. Use holes for the respiratory system when above the air surface. Nostril cetacean can be opened and closed according to the situation, so that when the cetacean depends inside, the air will not enter the respiratory tract. The number of nostrils is different, Mysticety has 2 nostrils, while the odontoceti (toothed whale) has 1 nostril.
Cetacea organs that look the same as fish organs are fins. There are three fins on cetaceans, namely the pectoral fins (fins), dorsal fins, and caudal fins (worms). The fin represents the branching of cetaceans whose structure is the same as the basic structure of the bone. The fin is supported by bone, attached to the tissue, and connected by cartilage. Unlike the fins, dorsal fin and fin do not have bone components. These three organs function as cetece movements. The fins are useful as the driver and the pectoral brake is useful as a movement stabilizer. This second organ also has a function as a regulator of body temperature. Flukes distinguish swimming movements between cetaceans and fish. The fish moves the tail fin towards the left and right, while the cetaceans move the flukes up and down. The upward and downward movement comes from the back and penducle (base of flukes) longitudinal muscles.
Mammals include warm-blooded animals, as well as cetaceans. There are hairs on mammals, but these hairs will decrease to disappear according to environmental adaptation in ease of movement. The use of energy supported by cetaceans is one of them is to stabilize body temperature. Cetaceans have a layer of fat under the skin associated with buoyancy and temperature adaptation to the environment. Besides the skin, fat can also be found in the liver, muscle tissue, and in bone oil. Cetacean fat works to maintain body temperature in the normal range to maintain an ambient temperature lower than body temperature.
Fat can also be found in large structures that cause a round cetacean forehead called melon. The fat in this melon helps cetaceans to channel the sound made by cetaceans through the airways. Cetaceans can vocalize through sonar capabilities (voice navigation and range) and echolocation. Cetaceans use echo sound transmission to look for objects, be it fish, challenges, collisions, and others. Sounds or signals transmitted through the air will be reflected by objects that receive them in the form of echoes. The echo is taken by a structure in the cetacean lower jaw. The difference in echoes produced by the object makes cetaceans an acceptable echo. The echoes that are produced help cetaceans to determine the location of objects. This cetacean capability is then applied in the manufacture of submarine radars.
Is a cetacean that lives solitary and in groups. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are collected gathering in large groups and centrally to find, herd, and collect fish. Some behaviors that show a group system in cetaceans are brea